Pigmentary manifestations can represent an early clinical sign in children affected by Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Legius syndrome, and other neurocutaneous disorders. The differential molecular diagnosis of these pathologies is a challenge that can now be met by combining next generation sequencing of target genes with concurrent second-level tests, such as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and RNA analysis. We clinically and genetically investigated 281 patients, almost all pediatric cases, presenting with either NF1 (n = 150), only pigmentary features (café au lait macules with or without freckling; (n = 95), or clinical suspicion of other RASopathies or neurocutaneous disorders (n = 36). The causative variant was identified in 239 out of the 281 patients analyzed (85.1%), while 42 patients remained undiagnosed (14.9%). The NF1 and SPRED1 genes were mutated in 73.3% and 2.8% of cases, respectively. The remaining 8.9% carried mutations in different genes associated with other disorders. We achieved a molecular diagnosis in 69.5% of cases with only pigmentary manifestations, allowing a more appropriate clinical management of these patients. Our findings, together with the increasing availability and sharing of clinical and genetic data, will help to identify further novel genotype-phenotype associations that may have a positive impact on patient follow-up.
Santoro, Claudia;Torella, Annalaura;Del Vecchio Blanco, Francesca;Grandone, Anna;Melone, Mariarosa Anna Beatrice;Limongelli, Giuseppe;Perrotta, Silverio;Nigro, Vincenzo;Piluso, Giulio
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