Myotonia congenita is a genetic disease characterized by impaired muscle relaxation after forceful contraction (myotonia). It is caused by mutations in the CLCN1 gene, encoding the voltage-gated chloride channel of skeletal muscle, ClC-1. According to the pattern of inheritance, two distinct clinical forms have been described, Thomsen disease, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and Becker disease inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. We report genetic and clinical data concerning 19 patients−13 familial and six isolated cases—all but one originating from the Campania Region, in southern Italy. Twelve patients (63.2%) present Becker type myotonia and 7 (36.8%) Thomsen type. Sex ratio M:F in Becker type is 6:6, while in Thomsen myotonia 4:3. The age of onset of the disease ranged from 2 to 15 years in Becker patients, and from 4 to 20 years in Thomsen. Overall 18 mutations were identified, 10 located in the coding part of the gene (exons 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 13, 15, 21, 22), and four in the intron part (introns 1, 2, 10, 18). All the exon mutations but two were missense mutations. Some of them, such as c.2551 G > A, c.817G > A and c.86A > C recurred more frequently. About 70% of mutations was inherited with an autosomal recessive pattern, two (c.86A and c.817G>A) with both mechanisms. Three novel mutations were identified, never described in the literature: p.Gly276Ser, p.Phe486Ser, and p.Gln812*, associated with Becker phenotype. Furthermore, we identified three CLCN1 mutations—c.86A>C + c.2551G > A, c.313C > T + c.501C > G and 899G > A + c.2284+5C > T, two of them inherited in cis on the same allele, in three unrelated families. The concomitant occurrence of both clinical pictures—Thomsen and Becker—was observed in one family. Intra-familial phenotypic variability was observed in two families, one with Becker phenotype, and one with Thomsen disease. In the latter an incomplete penetrance was hypothesized.
|Titolo:||CLCN1 Molecular Characterization in 19 South-Italian Patients With Dominant and Recessive Type of Myotonia Congenita|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|