Background Sambucus ebulus is a rich source of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) and RIP-related lectins generated from multiple genes. These proteins differ in their structure, enzymatic activity and sugar binding specificity. Methods We have purified and characterized ebulin-RP from S. ebulus leaves and determined the amino acid sequence by cDNA cloning. Cytotoxicity was studied in a variety of cancer cells and a comparative study of the ability of ebulin-RP to bind sugars using “in vitro” and “in silico” approaches was performed. Results Ebulin-RP is a novel heterodimeric type 2 RIP present in S. ebulus leaves together with the type 2 RIP ebulin l, which displayed rRNA N-glycosidase activity but unlike ebulin l, lacked functional sugar binding domains. As a consequence of changes in its B-chain, ebulin-RP displayed lower cytotoxicity than ebulin l towards cancer cells and induced apoptosis as the predominant pattern of cell death. Conclusions Ebulin-RP is a novel member of the ebulin gene family with low cytotoxicity as a result of deficient sugar binding domains. Type 2 RIP genes from Sambucus have evolved to render proteins with different sugar affinities that may be related to different biological activities and could result in an advantage for the plant. General significance The ebulin family of RIPs and lectins can serve as a good model for studying the evolutionary process which may have occurred in RIPs. The lack of cytotoxicity of ebulin-RP makes it a good candidate as a toxic moiety in the construction of immunotoxins and conjugates directed against specific targets.

Ebulin-RP, a novel member of the Ebulin gene family with low cytotoxicity as a result of deficient sugar binding domains

Di Maro, Antimo
Investigation
;
2018

Abstract

Background Sambucus ebulus is a rich source of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) and RIP-related lectins generated from multiple genes. These proteins differ in their structure, enzymatic activity and sugar binding specificity. Methods We have purified and characterized ebulin-RP from S. ebulus leaves and determined the amino acid sequence by cDNA cloning. Cytotoxicity was studied in a variety of cancer cells and a comparative study of the ability of ebulin-RP to bind sugars using “in vitro” and “in silico” approaches was performed. Results Ebulin-RP is a novel heterodimeric type 2 RIP present in S. ebulus leaves together with the type 2 RIP ebulin l, which displayed rRNA N-glycosidase activity but unlike ebulin l, lacked functional sugar binding domains. As a consequence of changes in its B-chain, ebulin-RP displayed lower cytotoxicity than ebulin l towards cancer cells and induced apoptosis as the predominant pattern of cell death. Conclusions Ebulin-RP is a novel member of the ebulin gene family with low cytotoxicity as a result of deficient sugar binding domains. Type 2 RIP genes from Sambucus have evolved to render proteins with different sugar affinities that may be related to different biological activities and could result in an advantage for the plant. General significance The ebulin family of RIPs and lectins can serve as a good model for studying the evolutionary process which may have occurred in RIPs. The lack of cytotoxicity of ebulin-RP makes it a good candidate as a toxic moiety in the construction of immunotoxins and conjugates directed against specific targets.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11591/385206
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