Diclofenac (DCF), a contaminant of emerging concern, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely detected in water bodies, which demonstrated harmful acute and chronic toxicity toward algae, zooplankton and aquatic invertebrates, therefore its removal from impacted water is necessary. DCF is recalcitrant toward traditional treatment technologies, thus, innovative approaches are required. Among them, electrochemical oxidation (EO) has shown promising results. In this research, an innovative multidisciplinary approach is proposed to assess the electrochemical oxidation (EO) of diclofenac from wastewater by integrating the investigations on the removal efficiency and by-product identification with the disinfection capacity and the assessment of the effect on environmental geno-toxicity of by-products generated through the oxidation. The electrochemical treatment successfully degraded DCF by achieving >98 % removal efficiency, operating with NaCl 0.02 M at 50 A m−2. By-product identification analyses showed the formation of five DCF parental compounds generated by decarboxylic and C–N cleavage reactions. The disinfection capacity of the EO technique was evaluated by carrying out microbiological tests on pathogens generally found in aquatic environments, including two rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli), one rod-shaped Gram-positive bacterium (Bacillus atrophaeus), and one Gram-positive coccus (Enterococcus hirae). Eco-toxicity was evaluated in freshwater organisms (algae, rotifers and crustaceans) belonging to two trophic levels through acute and chronic tests. Genotoxicity tests were carried out by Comet assay, and relative expression levels of catalase, manganese and copper superoxide dismutase genes in crustaceans. Results highlight the effectiveness of EO for the degradation of diclofenac and the inactivation of pathogens; however, the downstream mixture results in being harmful to the aquatic ecosystem.

An integrated approach for the assessment of the electrochemical oxidation of diclofenac: By-product identification, microbiological and eco-genotoxicological evaluation

Iovino P.;Lavorgna M.;Orlo E.;Russo C.
;
De Felice B.;Campolattano N.;Muscariello L.;Fenti A.
;
Chianese S.;Isidori M.;Musmarra D.
2024

Abstract

Diclofenac (DCF), a contaminant of emerging concern, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely detected in water bodies, which demonstrated harmful acute and chronic toxicity toward algae, zooplankton and aquatic invertebrates, therefore its removal from impacted water is necessary. DCF is recalcitrant toward traditional treatment technologies, thus, innovative approaches are required. Among them, electrochemical oxidation (EO) has shown promising results. In this research, an innovative multidisciplinary approach is proposed to assess the electrochemical oxidation (EO) of diclofenac from wastewater by integrating the investigations on the removal efficiency and by-product identification with the disinfection capacity and the assessment of the effect on environmental geno-toxicity of by-products generated through the oxidation. The electrochemical treatment successfully degraded DCF by achieving >98 % removal efficiency, operating with NaCl 0.02 M at 50 A m−2. By-product identification analyses showed the formation of five DCF parental compounds generated by decarboxylic and C–N cleavage reactions. The disinfection capacity of the EO technique was evaluated by carrying out microbiological tests on pathogens generally found in aquatic environments, including two rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli), one rod-shaped Gram-positive bacterium (Bacillus atrophaeus), and one Gram-positive coccus (Enterococcus hirae). Eco-toxicity was evaluated in freshwater organisms (algae, rotifers and crustaceans) belonging to two trophic levels through acute and chronic tests. Genotoxicity tests were carried out by Comet assay, and relative expression levels of catalase, manganese and copper superoxide dismutase genes in crustaceans. Results highlight the effectiveness of EO for the degradation of diclofenac and the inactivation of pathogens; however, the downstream mixture results in being harmful to the aquatic ecosystem.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11591/514928
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