Water reuse for irrigation activities is becoming a crucial worldwide challenge due to the depletion of water sources. Anyway, agricultural drainage can potentially contain dangerous contaminants such as metals, pesticides, and herbicides, including atrazine. To address the need for agriculture wastewater purification, we investigated atrazine removal from simulated wastewater by electro-oxidation using platinum-coated titanium electrodes on a lab-scale experimental apparatus. The effects of electrolyte composition and concentration, i.e. ionic strength and applied current density on atrazine removal, were investigated. The results demonstrated that the electrochemical oxidation of the herbicide occurred through two routes, depending on the presence or absence of oxidizing chlorine species. The generation of intermediates during the treatment was monitored and quantified by evaluating the effect of an inert electrolyte (NaClO4) versus an oxidizable chlorine species (NaCl). In both experimental conditions, five intermediates were identified, including desethyl-atrazine (DEA), hydroxyatrazine (ATZ-OH), desisopropyl-atrazine (DIA) and desethyl-desisopropyl-atrazine (DEDIA). A degradation mechanism and a model for describing hydroxyl radicals and active chlorine species contributions at ATZ oxidation were also proposed. Intermediate evolution profiles suggest that ATZ degradation can be considered as a series–parallel reaction system. Finally, the energy requirement assessment for ATZ removal was carried out. The highest ATZ removal (≅98%) was achieved with NaCl = 0.08 M, J = 60 A/m−2, and EC = 5.83 kWh m−3. Results highlight that atrazine removal was improved when an active chlorine species (NaCl) was present in the water solution. Moreover, the addition of chlorine species during electro-oxidation is an energy-saving strategy. Collectively, electro-oxidation technique can be efficiently applied to treat polluted water in order to meet the needs of recycling water quality and reduce resource consumption.

An innovative approach for atrazine electrochemical oxidation modelling: Process parameter effect, intermediate formation and kinetic constant assessment

Iovino P.;Chianese S.;Fenti A.;Musmarra D.
2023

Abstract

Water reuse for irrigation activities is becoming a crucial worldwide challenge due to the depletion of water sources. Anyway, agricultural drainage can potentially contain dangerous contaminants such as metals, pesticides, and herbicides, including atrazine. To address the need for agriculture wastewater purification, we investigated atrazine removal from simulated wastewater by electro-oxidation using platinum-coated titanium electrodes on a lab-scale experimental apparatus. The effects of electrolyte composition and concentration, i.e. ionic strength and applied current density on atrazine removal, were investigated. The results demonstrated that the electrochemical oxidation of the herbicide occurred through two routes, depending on the presence or absence of oxidizing chlorine species. The generation of intermediates during the treatment was monitored and quantified by evaluating the effect of an inert electrolyte (NaClO4) versus an oxidizable chlorine species (NaCl). In both experimental conditions, five intermediates were identified, including desethyl-atrazine (DEA), hydroxyatrazine (ATZ-OH), desisopropyl-atrazine (DIA) and desethyl-desisopropyl-atrazine (DEDIA). A degradation mechanism and a model for describing hydroxyl radicals and active chlorine species contributions at ATZ oxidation were also proposed. Intermediate evolution profiles suggest that ATZ degradation can be considered as a series–parallel reaction system. Finally, the energy requirement assessment for ATZ removal was carried out. The highest ATZ removal (≅98%) was achieved with NaCl = 0.08 M, J = 60 A/m−2, and EC = 5.83 kWh m−3. Results highlight that atrazine removal was improved when an active chlorine species (NaCl) was present in the water solution. Moreover, the addition of chlorine species during electro-oxidation is an energy-saving strategy. Collectively, electro-oxidation technique can be efficiently applied to treat polluted water in order to meet the needs of recycling water quality and reduce resource consumption.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11591/510368
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