The aortopathy associated with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is an epidemiologically relevant source of chronic and acute aortic disease (aneurysm and dissection). However, its pathogenesis is still the object of scientific uncertainties and debates. Indeed, the mechanisms determining the diseases of the ascending aorta in BAV patients are most likely complex and multifactorial, i.e. resulting from variable modes of interplay between genetic and hemodynamic factors. Although few scientific studies have so far taken into adequate account this complexity, leaving the precise sequence of pathogenetic events still undiscovered, the accumulated evidence from previous research approaches have at least brought about important insights. While genetic studies have so far identified variants relevant to either valve malformation or aortic complications (including those in the genes NOTCH1, TGFBR2, ACTA2, GATA5, NKX2.5, SMAD6, ROBO4), however each explaining not more than 5% of the study population, other investigations have thoroughly described both the flow features, with consequent forces acting on the arterial wall (including skewed flow jet direction, rotational flow, wall shear stress), and the main changes in the molecular and cellular wall structure (including extracellular matrix degradation, smooth muscle cell changes, oxidative stress, unbalance of TGF-beta signaling, aberrant endothelia l-tomesenchymal transition). All of this evidence, together with the recognition of the diverse phenotypes that the aortopathy can assume in BAV patients, holding possible prognostic significance, is reviewed in this chapter. The complex and multifaceted body of knowledge resulting from clinical and basic science studies on BAV aortopathy has the potential to importantly influence modes of clinical management of this disease in the near future. Crown Copyright (c) 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The science of BAV aortopathy

Lo Presti, Federica;Della Corte, Alessandro
2020

Abstract

The aortopathy associated with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is an epidemiologically relevant source of chronic and acute aortic disease (aneurysm and dissection). However, its pathogenesis is still the object of scientific uncertainties and debates. Indeed, the mechanisms determining the diseases of the ascending aorta in BAV patients are most likely complex and multifactorial, i.e. resulting from variable modes of interplay between genetic and hemodynamic factors. Although few scientific studies have so far taken into adequate account this complexity, leaving the precise sequence of pathogenetic events still undiscovered, the accumulated evidence from previous research approaches have at least brought about important insights. While genetic studies have so far identified variants relevant to either valve malformation or aortic complications (including those in the genes NOTCH1, TGFBR2, ACTA2, GATA5, NKX2.5, SMAD6, ROBO4), however each explaining not more than 5% of the study population, other investigations have thoroughly described both the flow features, with consequent forces acting on the arterial wall (including skewed flow jet direction, rotational flow, wall shear stress), and the main changes in the molecular and cellular wall structure (including extracellular matrix degradation, smooth muscle cell changes, oxidative stress, unbalance of TGF-beta signaling, aberrant endothelia l-tomesenchymal transition). All of this evidence, together with the recognition of the diverse phenotypes that the aortopathy can assume in BAV patients, holding possible prognostic significance, is reviewed in this chapter. The complex and multifaceted body of knowledge resulting from clinical and basic science studies on BAV aortopathy has the potential to importantly influence modes of clinical management of this disease in the near future. Crown Copyright (c) 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11591/487664
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