Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of stoma recurrence and the therapeutic strategy outcomes in relation to survival that have been adopted over the past few decades using a monoclonal antibody, specifically nivolumab. Methods This study included a total of 487 patients diagnosed with laryngeal carcinoma undergoing either a laryngectomy or salvage surgery after conservative interventions at the ENT Unit of Federico II University in Naples, Italy, between 2011 and 2021. Following a minimum 2.5-year follow-up and a maximum 21-year follow-up, the results revealed that only 38 patients suffered a stomal recurrence. Results Despite various adopted treatment strategies, the literature reports lower patient survival rates. Following a total laryngectomy, stomal recurrence represents a therapeutic management challenge due to a poor prognosis for nearly every treated case. According to the literature, in fact, despite a low incidence (ie, 0.8-31.3%), the overall mortality rate increases from 77% to 100% after three years. Nevertheless, introducing immunotherapy into cancer treatment has resulted in an observable revolution in the treatment of different types of cancers over the years. Conclusion In light of recorded data on survival following the use of the nivolumab, the case presented in this study allows a new perspective of successfully treating recurrences of squamous carcinoma of the head and neck.
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