Scorpion sting is a public health issue in several countries, particularly in America, the Middle East, India and Africa. The estimated annual global incidence of scorpion envenomings is about 1.5 million, resulting in 2600 deaths. Scorpions are Arthropoda characterized by a tail ending in a terminal bulbous (telson) containing paired venom glands and the stinger. There are 19 known families of scorpions and more than 2200 species, of which about 50 from the families of Buthidae, Hemiscorpiidae and Scorpionidae are harmful to humans. Scorpion venom is a complex structure composed of neurotoxic proteins, salts, acidic proteins and organic compounds, thereby having neurologic, cardiovascular, hematologic and renal side effects, in addition to local effects such as redness, pain, burning and swelling. When the sting is fatal, the mechanism of death is often related to cardiotoxicity with terminal pulmonary edema. However, the cholinergic excess or the neuromuscular excitation can provoke respiratory failure. Sometimes, death is due to an anaphylactic reaction to the envenoming. The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the autopsy findings in scorpion sting-related deaths in order to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying them, thus helping pathologists in defining the correct diagnosis.

Autopsy findings in case of fatal scorpion sting: A systematic review of the literature

Feola A.
;
Della Pietra B.;
2020

Abstract

Scorpion sting is a public health issue in several countries, particularly in America, the Middle East, India and Africa. The estimated annual global incidence of scorpion envenomings is about 1.5 million, resulting in 2600 deaths. Scorpions are Arthropoda characterized by a tail ending in a terminal bulbous (telson) containing paired venom glands and the stinger. There are 19 known families of scorpions and more than 2200 species, of which about 50 from the families of Buthidae, Hemiscorpiidae and Scorpionidae are harmful to humans. Scorpion venom is a complex structure composed of neurotoxic proteins, salts, acidic proteins and organic compounds, thereby having neurologic, cardiovascular, hematologic and renal side effects, in addition to local effects such as redness, pain, burning and swelling. When the sting is fatal, the mechanism of death is often related to cardiotoxicity with terminal pulmonary edema. However, the cholinergic excess or the neuromuscular excitation can provoke respiratory failure. Sometimes, death is due to an anaphylactic reaction to the envenoming. The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the autopsy findings in scorpion sting-related deaths in order to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying them, thus helping pathologists in defining the correct diagnosis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11591/484992
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