Freshwater ecosystems are recognized as non-negligible sources of plastic contamination for the marine environment that is the final acceptor of 53 thousand tons of plastic per year. In this context, microplastic particles are well known to directly pose a great threat to freshwater organisms, they also indirectly affect the aquatic ecosystem by adsorbing and acting as a vector for the transport of other pollutants ( "Trojan horse effect "). Polystyrene is one of the most widely produced plastics on a global scale, and it is among the most abundant microplastic particles found in freshwaters. Nevertheless, to date few studies have focused on the eco-genotoxic effects on freshwater organisms caused by polystyrene microplastic particles (PS -MPs) in combination with other pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides. The aim of this study is to investigate chronic and sub-chronic effects of the microplastic polystyrene beads (PS-MP, 1.0 mu m) both as individual xenobiotic and in combination (binary/ternary mixtures) with the aciclo-guanosine antiviral drug acyclovir (AC), and the neonicotinoid broad-spectrum insecticide imidacloprid (IMD) in one of the most sensitive non-target organisms of the freshwater food chain: the cladoceran crustacean Cer-iodaphnia dubia. Considering that the individually selected xenobiotics have different modes of action and/or different biological sites, the Bliss independence was used as reference model for this research. Basically, when C. dubia neonates were exposed for 24 h to the mixtures during Comet assay, mostly an antagonistic genotoxic effect was observed. When neonates were exposed to the mixtures for 7 days, mostly an additive chronic toxic effect occurred at concentrations very close or even overlapping to the environmental ones ranging from units to tens of ng/L for PS-MPs, from tenths/hundredths to units of mu g/L for AC and from units to hundreds of mu g/L for IMD, revealing great environmental concern.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.