Background: Elderly patients are at high risk of both ischaemic and bleeding events, and the low body weight is considered a risk factor for major bleeding in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients on anticoagulation therapy. The aim of our study was to compare the safety and effectiveness of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) versus well-controlled vitamin-K antagonists (VKA) therapy among AF patients aged >75 years and with a body weight <60 kg in a prospective registry setting. Methods: Data for this study were sourced from the Italian cohorts of PREFER in AF and PREFER in AF PROLONGATION registries. The occurrence of a composite of stroke, transient ischemic attack and systemic embolism (thromboembolic events) was the primary effectiveness endpoint. The occurrence of major bleeding was the primary safety endpoint. All-cause hospitalizations and all-cause death were the secondary endpoints. The net clinical benefit (NCB) was calculated in order to obtain an integrated assessment of the anti-thromboembolic and pro-haemorrhagic effects of NOACs vs. VKA. Results: Overall, 522 patients were included; 225 were on treatment with NOACs and 317 patients with VKA. The NOAC group more frequently featured a higher BMI and a higher prevalence of history of stroke/TIA and insulin-requiring diabetes; conversely, heart failure and chronic liver disease were less frequent in the NAOC group. In the unmatched study population, 18 patients (3.6% in the NOAC vs. 3.2% in the VKA group, p = 0.79) experienced thromboembolic events; 19 patients (1.78% in the NOAC vs. 4.73% in the VKA group, p = 0.06) experienced major bleeding events; and 68 patients were hospitalized during the follow-up (9.3% vs. 14.8%, p = 0.06). After balancing for potential confounders by using the 1:1 propensity score matching technique, 426 patients (213 on NOAC and 213 on VKA) were selected. We found no significant differences in terms of thromboembolic events (3.76% vs. 4.69%, p = 0.63), major bleeding events (n: 1.88% vs. 4.22%, p = 0.15) and hospitalizations (9.9% vs. 16.9%, p = 0.06) between NOAC vs. VKA matched population. Based on these incidences, we found a positive net clinical benefit (+1.6) of NOACs vs. VKAs. Conclusions: These real-world data suggest the safety and effectiveness of using NOACs in elderly patients with low body weight.

Clinical Performance of Oral Anticoagulants in Elderly with Atrial Fibrillation and Low Body Weight: Insight into Italian Cohort of PREFER-AF and PREFER-AF Prolongation Registries

Russo, Vincenzo
;
2022

Abstract

Background: Elderly patients are at high risk of both ischaemic and bleeding events, and the low body weight is considered a risk factor for major bleeding in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients on anticoagulation therapy. The aim of our study was to compare the safety and effectiveness of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) versus well-controlled vitamin-K antagonists (VKA) therapy among AF patients aged >75 years and with a body weight <60 kg in a prospective registry setting. Methods: Data for this study were sourced from the Italian cohorts of PREFER in AF and PREFER in AF PROLONGATION registries. The occurrence of a composite of stroke, transient ischemic attack and systemic embolism (thromboembolic events) was the primary effectiveness endpoint. The occurrence of major bleeding was the primary safety endpoint. All-cause hospitalizations and all-cause death were the secondary endpoints. The net clinical benefit (NCB) was calculated in order to obtain an integrated assessment of the anti-thromboembolic and pro-haemorrhagic effects of NOACs vs. VKA. Results: Overall, 522 patients were included; 225 were on treatment with NOACs and 317 patients with VKA. The NOAC group more frequently featured a higher BMI and a higher prevalence of history of stroke/TIA and insulin-requiring diabetes; conversely, heart failure and chronic liver disease were less frequent in the NAOC group. In the unmatched study population, 18 patients (3.6% in the NOAC vs. 3.2% in the VKA group, p = 0.79) experienced thromboembolic events; 19 patients (1.78% in the NOAC vs. 4.73% in the VKA group, p = 0.06) experienced major bleeding events; and 68 patients were hospitalized during the follow-up (9.3% vs. 14.8%, p = 0.06). After balancing for potential confounders by using the 1:1 propensity score matching technique, 426 patients (213 on NOAC and 213 on VKA) were selected. We found no significant differences in terms of thromboembolic events (3.76% vs. 4.69%, p = 0.63), major bleeding events (n: 1.88% vs. 4.22%, p = 0.15) and hospitalizations (9.9% vs. 16.9%, p = 0.06) between NOAC vs. VKA matched population. Based on these incidences, we found a positive net clinical benefit (+1.6) of NOACs vs. VKAs. Conclusions: These real-world data suggest the safety and effectiveness of using NOACs in elderly patients with low body weight.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11591/477219
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