Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most frequent valvulopathy with a prevalence of 1.2%-2.4% in general population and it is characterized by a benign course. Although it can be associated with some complications, ventricular arrhythmias (VA) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) as ultimate expressions, are the most worrying. The estimated risk of SCD in MVP is between 0.2% and 1.9% per year including both MVP patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction due to severe MR and MVP patients without significant MR. The latter ones constitute a particular phenotype called "malignant MVP" characterized by bileaflet myxomatous prolapse, ECG repolarization abnormalities and complex VAs (c-VAs) with polymorphic/right bundle branch block morphology (RBBB) and LV fibrosis of the papillary muscles (PMs) and inferobasal wall secondary to mechanical stretching visualized as late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) areas by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). In MVP, the first diagnostic approach is transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) that defines the presence of mitral annular disjunction (MAD) which seems to be associated with "arrhythmic MVP" (AMVP). From an ECG point of view, AMVP is characterized by frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) arising from one or both PMs, fascicular tissue, and outflow tract, as well as by T-wave inversion in the inferolateral leads. The aim of the present paper is to describe TTE red flags that could identify MVP patients at high risk to develop complex arrhythmias as supported by the corresponding findings of LGE-CMR and anatomy studies. TTE could be a co-partner in phenotyping high-risk arrhythmic MVP patients.

Transthoracic echocardiography for arrhythmic mitral valve prolapse: Phenotypic characterization as first step

Limongelli, Giuseppe;
2022

Abstract

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most frequent valvulopathy with a prevalence of 1.2%-2.4% in general population and it is characterized by a benign course. Although it can be associated with some complications, ventricular arrhythmias (VA) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) as ultimate expressions, are the most worrying. The estimated risk of SCD in MVP is between 0.2% and 1.9% per year including both MVP patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction due to severe MR and MVP patients without significant MR. The latter ones constitute a particular phenotype called "malignant MVP" characterized by bileaflet myxomatous prolapse, ECG repolarization abnormalities and complex VAs (c-VAs) with polymorphic/right bundle branch block morphology (RBBB) and LV fibrosis of the papillary muscles (PMs) and inferobasal wall secondary to mechanical stretching visualized as late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) areas by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). In MVP, the first diagnostic approach is transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) that defines the presence of mitral annular disjunction (MAD) which seems to be associated with "arrhythmic MVP" (AMVP). From an ECG point of view, AMVP is characterized by frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) arising from one or both PMs, fascicular tissue, and outflow tract, as well as by T-wave inversion in the inferolateral leads. The aim of the present paper is to describe TTE red flags that could identify MVP patients at high risk to develop complex arrhythmias as supported by the corresponding findings of LGE-CMR and anatomy studies. TTE could be a co-partner in phenotyping high-risk arrhythmic MVP patients.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11591/477149
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