The diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) represents an increasing social burden, with the unsolved issue of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). The failure of clinical trials treating Alzheimer's Disease (AD) so far highlighted the need for a different approach in drug design and patient selection. Identifying subjects in the prodromal or early symptomatic phase is critical to slow down neurodegeneration, but the implementation of screening programs with this aim will have an ethical and social aftermath. Novel minimally invasive candidate biomarkers (derived from blood, saliva, olfactory brush) or classical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers have been developed in research settings to stratify patients with NDDs. Misfolded protein accumulation, neuroinflammation, and synaptic loss are the pathophysiological hallmarks detected by these biomarkers to refine diagnosis, prognosis, and target engagement of drugs in clinical trials. We reviewed fluid biomarkers of NDDs, considering their potential role as screening, diagnostic, or prognostic tool, and their present-day use in clinical trials (phase II and III). A special focus will be dedicated to novel techniques for the detection of misfolded proteins. Eventually, an applicative diagnostic algorithm will be proposed to translate the research data in clinical practice and select prodromal or early patients to be enrolled in the appropriate DMTs trials for NDDs.

Fluid Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Disorders: Toward Integrative Diagnostic Frameworks and Tailored Treatments

De Luca, Ciro
;
2022

Abstract

The diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) represents an increasing social burden, with the unsolved issue of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). The failure of clinical trials treating Alzheimer's Disease (AD) so far highlighted the need for a different approach in drug design and patient selection. Identifying subjects in the prodromal or early symptomatic phase is critical to slow down neurodegeneration, but the implementation of screening programs with this aim will have an ethical and social aftermath. Novel minimally invasive candidate biomarkers (derived from blood, saliva, olfactory brush) or classical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers have been developed in research settings to stratify patients with NDDs. Misfolded protein accumulation, neuroinflammation, and synaptic loss are the pathophysiological hallmarks detected by these biomarkers to refine diagnosis, prognosis, and target engagement of drugs in clinical trials. We reviewed fluid biomarkers of NDDs, considering their potential role as screening, diagnostic, or prognostic tool, and their present-day use in clinical trials (phase II and III). A special focus will be dedicated to novel techniques for the detection of misfolded proteins. Eventually, an applicative diagnostic algorithm will be proposed to translate the research data in clinical practice and select prodromal or early patients to be enrolled in the appropriate DMTs trials for NDDs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11591/473249
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