Herein is reported, for the first time in the rat Harderian gland (HG), the counteractive action of melatonin (Mlt), a well-known antioxidant radical scavenger, on the increased oxidative stress damages induced by a pro-oxidant substance, cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant also considered as endocrine disruptor. HG, an infraorbital gland present in almost all terrestrial vertebrates, produces a lipid secretion to lubricate the eyeball, as well as porphyrin/Mlt as light transducers. Moreover, HG is an extra-gonadal source of steroid sex hormones. Via ex vivo experiments lasting for 24 h, we verified the increased lipid peroxidation in Cd-treated glands, producing morphological alteration of the glandular epithelium, as well as an increased porphyrins accumulation. Moreover, Cd also induced a decreased protein level of the steroidogenic enzymes steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and 3βHSD, and an increased mast cell number. Results obtained with Mlt cotreatment demonstrated that it decreased the levels of Cd-induced oxidative damage, with reversal of all the observed modification. Via ex vivo experiments lasting for 24 h, we verified the increased lipid peroxidation in Cd-treated glands, producing morphological alteration of the glandular epithelium, as well as an increased porphyrins accumulation. Moreover, Cd also induced a decreased protein level of the steroidogenic enzymes StAR and 3βHSD, and an increased mast cell number. Results obtained with Mlt cotreatment demonstrated that it decreased the levels of Cd-induced oxidative damage, with reversal of all the observed modification. Furthermore, the TUNEL assay showed that the increased number of apoptotic cells in Cd-treated HG was counteracted by the contemporaneous Mlt administration. Results confirmed that Mlt treatment restored the levels of two autophagy markers, LC3 and p62, counteracting the autophagy Cd-induced. Interestingly, the positive effects of Mlt alone were highlighted by the decreased rate of lipid peroxidation as compared with the control, confirming its antioxidant action. Combined data further confirmed the antioxidant action of Mlt in counteracting the degeneration provoked by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the rat HG, a tissue extremely susceptible to oxidative stress condition.

Preliminary study of the ameliorative effects of melatonin on cadmium-induced morphological and biochemical alterations in the rat Harderian gland

Venditti, Massimo
Conceptualization
;
Minucci, Sergio
Writing – Review & Editing
2022

Abstract

Herein is reported, for the first time in the rat Harderian gland (HG), the counteractive action of melatonin (Mlt), a well-known antioxidant radical scavenger, on the increased oxidative stress damages induced by a pro-oxidant substance, cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant also considered as endocrine disruptor. HG, an infraorbital gland present in almost all terrestrial vertebrates, produces a lipid secretion to lubricate the eyeball, as well as porphyrin/Mlt as light transducers. Moreover, HG is an extra-gonadal source of steroid sex hormones. Via ex vivo experiments lasting for 24 h, we verified the increased lipid peroxidation in Cd-treated glands, producing morphological alteration of the glandular epithelium, as well as an increased porphyrins accumulation. Moreover, Cd also induced a decreased protein level of the steroidogenic enzymes steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and 3βHSD, and an increased mast cell number. Results obtained with Mlt cotreatment demonstrated that it decreased the levels of Cd-induced oxidative damage, with reversal of all the observed modification. Via ex vivo experiments lasting for 24 h, we verified the increased lipid peroxidation in Cd-treated glands, producing morphological alteration of the glandular epithelium, as well as an increased porphyrins accumulation. Moreover, Cd also induced a decreased protein level of the steroidogenic enzymes StAR and 3βHSD, and an increased mast cell number. Results obtained with Mlt cotreatment demonstrated that it decreased the levels of Cd-induced oxidative damage, with reversal of all the observed modification. Furthermore, the TUNEL assay showed that the increased number of apoptotic cells in Cd-treated HG was counteracted by the contemporaneous Mlt administration. Results confirmed that Mlt treatment restored the levels of two autophagy markers, LC3 and p62, counteracting the autophagy Cd-induced. Interestingly, the positive effects of Mlt alone were highlighted by the decreased rate of lipid peroxidation as compared with the control, confirming its antioxidant action. Combined data further confirmed the antioxidant action of Mlt in counteracting the degeneration provoked by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the rat HG, a tissue extremely susceptible to oxidative stress condition.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11591/472728
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