Glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential in regulating functions and homeostasis in many biological systems and are extensively used to treat a variety of conditions associated with immune/in-flammatory processes. GCs are among the most powerful drugs for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but their long-term usage is limited by severe adverse effects. For this reason, to envision new therapies devoid of typical GC side effects, research has focused on expand-ing the knowledge of cellular and molecular effects of GCs. GC-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a GC-target protein shown to mediate several actions of GCs, including inhibition of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. GILZ expression is not restricted to immune cells, and it has been shown to play a regulatory role in many organs and tissues, including the cardiovascular system. Research on the role of GILZ on endothelial cells has demonstrated its ability to modulate the inflammatory cascade, resulting in a downregulation of cytokines, chemokines, and cellular adhesion molecules. GILZ also has the capacity to protect myocardial cells, as its deletion makes the heart, after a deleterious stim-ulus, more susceptible to apoptosis, immune cell infiltration, hypertrophy, and impaired function. Despite these advances, we have only just begun to appreciate the relevance of GILZ in cardiovascular homeostasis and dysfunction. This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of GILZ in modulating biological processes relevant to cardiovascular biology.

Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (Gilz) in cardiovascular health and disease

Cappetta D.;Rossi F.;Berrino L.;De Angelis A.;
2021

Abstract

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential in regulating functions and homeostasis in many biological systems and are extensively used to treat a variety of conditions associated with immune/in-flammatory processes. GCs are among the most powerful drugs for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but their long-term usage is limited by severe adverse effects. For this reason, to envision new therapies devoid of typical GC side effects, research has focused on expand-ing the knowledge of cellular and molecular effects of GCs. GC-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a GC-target protein shown to mediate several actions of GCs, including inhibition of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. GILZ expression is not restricted to immune cells, and it has been shown to play a regulatory role in many organs and tissues, including the cardiovascular system. Research on the role of GILZ on endothelial cells has demonstrated its ability to modulate the inflammatory cascade, resulting in a downregulation of cytokines, chemokines, and cellular adhesion molecules. GILZ also has the capacity to protect myocardial cells, as its deletion makes the heart, after a deleterious stim-ulus, more susceptible to apoptosis, immune cell infiltration, hypertrophy, and impaired function. Despite these advances, we have only just begun to appreciate the relevance of GILZ in cardiovascular homeostasis and dysfunction. This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of GILZ in modulating biological processes relevant to cardiovascular biology.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11591/469960
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