Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents approximately 10% of all cancers and is the second most common cause of cancer deaths. Initial clinical presentation as metastatic CRC (mCRC) occurs in approximately 20% of patients. Moreover, up to 50% of patients with localized disease eventually develop metastases. Appropriate clinical management of these patients is still a challenging medical issue. Major efforts have been made to unveil the molecular landscape of mCRC. This has resulted in the identification of several druggable tumor molecular targets with the aim of developing personalized treatments for each patient. This review summarizes the improvements in the clinical management of patients with mCRC in the emerging era of precision medicine. In fact, molecular stratification, on which the current treatment algorithm for mCRC is based, although it does not completely represent the complexity of this disease, has been the first significant step toward clinically informative genetic profiling for implementing more effective therapeutic approaches. This has resulted in a clinically relevant increase in mCRC disease control and patient survival. The next steps in the clinical management of mCRC will be to integrate the comprehensive knowledge of tumor gene alterations, of tumor and microenvironment gene and protein expression profiling, of host immune competence as well as the application of the resulting dynamic changes to a precision medicine-based continuum of care for each patient. This approach could result in the identification of individual prognostic and predictive parameters, which could help the clinician in choosing the most appropriate therapeutic program(s) throughout the entire disease journey for each patient with mCRC. CA Cancer J Clin. 2022;72:000-000.

Clinical management of metastatic colorectal cancer in the era of precision medicine

Ciardiello, Fortunato;Ciardiello, Davide;Martini, Giulia;Napolitano, Stefania;
2022

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents approximately 10% of all cancers and is the second most common cause of cancer deaths. Initial clinical presentation as metastatic CRC (mCRC) occurs in approximately 20% of patients. Moreover, up to 50% of patients with localized disease eventually develop metastases. Appropriate clinical management of these patients is still a challenging medical issue. Major efforts have been made to unveil the molecular landscape of mCRC. This has resulted in the identification of several druggable tumor molecular targets with the aim of developing personalized treatments for each patient. This review summarizes the improvements in the clinical management of patients with mCRC in the emerging era of precision medicine. In fact, molecular stratification, on which the current treatment algorithm for mCRC is based, although it does not completely represent the complexity of this disease, has been the first significant step toward clinically informative genetic profiling for implementing more effective therapeutic approaches. This has resulted in a clinically relevant increase in mCRC disease control and patient survival. The next steps in the clinical management of mCRC will be to integrate the comprehensive knowledge of tumor gene alterations, of tumor and microenvironment gene and protein expression profiling, of host immune competence as well as the application of the resulting dynamic changes to a precision medicine-based continuum of care for each patient. This approach could result in the identification of individual prognostic and predictive parameters, which could help the clinician in choosing the most appropriate therapeutic program(s) throughout the entire disease journey for each patient with mCRC. CA Cancer J Clin. 2022;72:000-000.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11591/469899
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