Purpose: This study explored the possibility of highlighting early retinal neurovascular alterations of diabetic retinopathy (DR) by monitoring in DR patients the serum levels of microglial biomarkers ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5), and translocator protein (TSPO), along with serum changes of the endothelial dysfunction marker arginase-1. Methods: Serum markers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 50 patients: 12 non-diabetic subjects, 14 diabetic patients without DR, 13 patients with non-proliferative DR (NPDR), and 11 patients with proliferative DR (PDR). The results were correlated with hyperreflective retinal spots (HRS), observed with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results: Although HRS were absent in diabetic patients without DR, NPDR patients showed an average of 4 ± 1 HRS, whereas the highest presence was detected in PDR patients, with 8 ± 1 HRS (P < 0.01 vs. NPDR). HRS were positively correlated (P < 0.01) with serum levels of arginase-1 (r = 0.91), Iba-1 (r = 0.96), GLUT5 (r = 0.94), and TSPO (r = 0.88). Moreover, serum proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines showed a positive correlation (P < 0.01) with HRS number and the serum markers analyzed. Conclusions: Serum markers of microglial activation positively correlate with retinal HRS in NPDR and PDR patients. Translational Relevance: These data corroborate the possibility of highlighting early retinal neurovascular changes due to diabetes by monitoring circulating microglial markers.

Serum Iba-1, GLUT5, and TSPO in Patients With Diabetic Retinopathy: New Biomarkers for Early Retinal Neurovascular Alterations? A Pilot Study

Trotta M. C.;Gesualdo C.;Cavasso G.;Simonelli F.;Rossi S.
2022

Abstract

Purpose: This study explored the possibility of highlighting early retinal neurovascular alterations of diabetic retinopathy (DR) by monitoring in DR patients the serum levels of microglial biomarkers ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5), and translocator protein (TSPO), along with serum changes of the endothelial dysfunction marker arginase-1. Methods: Serum markers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 50 patients: 12 non-diabetic subjects, 14 diabetic patients without DR, 13 patients with non-proliferative DR (NPDR), and 11 patients with proliferative DR (PDR). The results were correlated with hyperreflective retinal spots (HRS), observed with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results: Although HRS were absent in diabetic patients without DR, NPDR patients showed an average of 4 ± 1 HRS, whereas the highest presence was detected in PDR patients, with 8 ± 1 HRS (P < 0.01 vs. NPDR). HRS were positively correlated (P < 0.01) with serum levels of arginase-1 (r = 0.91), Iba-1 (r = 0.96), GLUT5 (r = 0.94), and TSPO (r = 0.88). Moreover, serum proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines showed a positive correlation (P < 0.01) with HRS number and the serum markers analyzed. Conclusions: Serum markers of microglial activation positively correlate with retinal HRS in NPDR and PDR patients. Translational Relevance: These data corroborate the possibility of highlighting early retinal neurovascular changes due to diabetes by monitoring circulating microglial markers.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11591/469756
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