Bone is an extraordinary biological material that continuously adapts its hierarchical microstructure to respond to static and dynamic loads for offering optimal mechanical features, in terms of stiffness and toughness, across different scales, from the sub-microscopic constituents within osteons—where the cyclic activity of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes redesigns shape and percentage of mineral crystals and collagen fibers—up to the macroscopic level, with growth and remodeling processes that modify the architecture of both compact and porous bone districts. Despite the intrinsic complexity of the bone mechanobiology, involving coupling phenomena of micro-damage, nutrients supply driven by fluid flowing throughout hierarchical networks, and cells turnover, successful models and numerical algorithms have been presented in the literature to predict, at the macroscale, how bone remodels under mechanical stimuli, a fundamental issue in many medical applications such as optimization of femur prostheses and diagnosis of the risk fracture. Within this framework, one of the most classical strategies employed in the studies is the so-called Stanford’s law, which allows uploading the effect of the time-dependent load-induced stress stimulus into a biomechanical model to guess the bone structure evolution. In the present work, we generalize this approach by introducing the bone poroelasticity, thus incorporating in the model the role of the fluid content that, by driving nutrients and contributing to the removal of wastes of bone tissue cells, synergistically interacts with the classical stress fields to change homeostasis states, local saturation conditions, and reorients the bone density rate, in this way affecting growth and remodeling. Through two paradigmatic example applications, i.e. a cylindrical slice with internal prescribed displacements idealizing a tract of femoral diaphysis pushed out by the pressure exerted by a femur prosthesis and a bone element in a form of a bent beam, it is highlighted that the present model is capable to catch more realistically both the transition between spongy and cortical regions and the expected non-symmetrical evolution of bone tissue density in the medium–long term, unpredictable with the standard approach. A real study case of a femur is also considered at the end in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed remodeling algorithm.

Symmetry breaking and effects of nutrient walkway in time-dependent bone remodeling incorporating poroelasticity

Esposito L.;Minutolo V.;
2022

Abstract

Bone is an extraordinary biological material that continuously adapts its hierarchical microstructure to respond to static and dynamic loads for offering optimal mechanical features, in terms of stiffness and toughness, across different scales, from the sub-microscopic constituents within osteons—where the cyclic activity of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes redesigns shape and percentage of mineral crystals and collagen fibers—up to the macroscopic level, with growth and remodeling processes that modify the architecture of both compact and porous bone districts. Despite the intrinsic complexity of the bone mechanobiology, involving coupling phenomena of micro-damage, nutrients supply driven by fluid flowing throughout hierarchical networks, and cells turnover, successful models and numerical algorithms have been presented in the literature to predict, at the macroscale, how bone remodels under mechanical stimuli, a fundamental issue in many medical applications such as optimization of femur prostheses and diagnosis of the risk fracture. Within this framework, one of the most classical strategies employed in the studies is the so-called Stanford’s law, which allows uploading the effect of the time-dependent load-induced stress stimulus into a biomechanical model to guess the bone structure evolution. In the present work, we generalize this approach by introducing the bone poroelasticity, thus incorporating in the model the role of the fluid content that, by driving nutrients and contributing to the removal of wastes of bone tissue cells, synergistically interacts with the classical stress fields to change homeostasis states, local saturation conditions, and reorients the bone density rate, in this way affecting growth and remodeling. Through two paradigmatic example applications, i.e. a cylindrical slice with internal prescribed displacements idealizing a tract of femoral diaphysis pushed out by the pressure exerted by a femur prosthesis and a bone element in a form of a bent beam, it is highlighted that the present model is capable to catch more realistically both the transition between spongy and cortical regions and the expected non-symmetrical evolution of bone tissue density in the medium–long term, unpredictable with the standard approach. A real study case of a femur is also considered at the end in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed remodeling algorithm.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11591/468744
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact