Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is caused by an arbovirus prevalent in various parts of the world. The virus can induce autoantibodies and rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and spondylarthritis. However, until now, no case of Sjögren syndrome (SS) was described associated with CHIKV. In this article, we describe a 49-year-old female with polyarthralgia and a temporary rash on her trunk and arms. Her physical examination showed polyarthritis of her ankles and wrists. Serologies for CHIKV were interpreted as positive with IgM 6.5 (normal range < 0.8) and negative for IgG. Antinuclear antibodies were positive at a titer of 1:640 as well as anti-Ro/SS-A. The diagnosis of subacute CHIKV infection was determined. The Schirmer test, Rose Bengal, and salivary scintigraphy were positive and the diagnosis of SS was confirmed. She was treated with hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate, and a single dose of betamethasone depot. This is the first report on CHIKV associated with SS. Sequence analysis of the CHIKV proteome versus SS autoantigens showed an extensive peptide sharing between the virus and numerous SS autoantigens, thus supporting the hypothesis that autoimmune cross-reactivity might causally link CHIKV to SS.
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