n this study, we compared the chemical-physical, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity properties of silico-aluminous and silicate materials for outdoor (green roof, planted walls) and indoor (urban farms, indoor microgreen gardens) cultivation purpose in a context of sustainable construction. Glasses and lightweight aggregates were tailored starting from waste, by-product, and post-consumer and bioproducts (packaging glass cullet, cattle bone flour ash, vegetable biomass ash, spent coffee ground, degreased from biomass of prepupae of Black Soldier Flies) mixed together with a national ferruginous red clay, quarry scrap pumice and, if necessary, with K2CO3 of reagent grade. The first type of material was obtained by melting at 1200 °C and the second one by powder sintering at 1000 °C. All specimens, subjected to antibacterial test, showed both low zone of inhibitions towards two Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacterial strains. A cytotoxicity test on mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH-3T3 cell line directly exposed to the investigated materials was performed at three different exposure times (1 h, 3 h, and 6 h). Data acquired highlighted that the materials positively affected redox mitochondrial activity of the fibroblast cells. The concentrations of leachate heavy metals detected on selected materials in water at room temperature after 24 h were lower than the European law limit and an interesting release of P, K, and N nutrients was noted for those formulations designed for agronomic purposes. pH, falling on average within the 6.5–7.5 range, is optimal for most crops, and the specific conductivity <2 dS/m indicates no depression danger for crops. Both bulk density <1200 kg/m3 and porosity over 50% seem to ensure good performance of lightening, drainage, water reservation, and oxygenation of the roots.
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