Several studies showed the association between non-traditional risk factors [proteinuria and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR)] and cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes. Nevertheless, the etiologic role of traditional CV risk factors in referred CKD patients is less defined. Herein, we examined the association between smoking habit and CV events, mortality and CKD progression. We undertook an observational analysis of 1306 stage III–V CKD patients. Smoking habit was modeled as a categorical (never, current or former smokers) and continuous (number of cigarettes/day) variable. Mean eGFR was 35.8 ± 12.5 mL/min/1.73 m2. Never, current and former smokers were 61.1%, 10.8% and 28.1%. During a median follow-up of 2.87 years, current and former smokers were at significant risk for CV events (HRs of 1.93 [95% CI, 1.18–3.16] and 1.44 [95% CI, 1.01–2.05]) versus never smokers. Current smokers were at increased mortality risk (HR 2.13 [95% CI, 1.10–4.11]). Interactions were found between former smokers and proteinuria (p = 0.007) and diabetes (p = 0.041) for renal risk, and between current smokers and male gender (p = 0.044) and CKD stage V (p = 0.039) for renal and mortality risk. In referred CKD patients, smoking habit is independently associated with CV events and mortality. It acts as a risk “amplifier” for the association between other risk factors and renal outcomes.

Smoking habit as a risk amplifier in chronic kidney disease patients

De Nicola L.;
2021

Abstract

Several studies showed the association between non-traditional risk factors [proteinuria and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR)] and cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes. Nevertheless, the etiologic role of traditional CV risk factors in referred CKD patients is less defined. Herein, we examined the association between smoking habit and CV events, mortality and CKD progression. We undertook an observational analysis of 1306 stage III–V CKD patients. Smoking habit was modeled as a categorical (never, current or former smokers) and continuous (number of cigarettes/day) variable. Mean eGFR was 35.8 ± 12.5 mL/min/1.73 m2. Never, current and former smokers were 61.1%, 10.8% and 28.1%. During a median follow-up of 2.87 years, current and former smokers were at significant risk for CV events (HRs of 1.93 [95% CI, 1.18–3.16] and 1.44 [95% CI, 1.01–2.05]) versus never smokers. Current smokers were at increased mortality risk (HR 2.13 [95% CI, 1.10–4.11]). Interactions were found between former smokers and proteinuria (p = 0.007) and diabetes (p = 0.041) for renal risk, and between current smokers and male gender (p = 0.044) and CKD stage V (p = 0.039) for renal and mortality risk. In referred CKD patients, smoking habit is independently associated with CV events and mortality. It acts as a risk “amplifier” for the association between other risk factors and renal outcomes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11591/457696
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