Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death from cancer in the world. Recently, the effectiveness of new antiviral therapies and the HBV vaccine have reduced HCC’s incidence, while non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis is an emerging risk factor. This review focuses on antiangiogenic molecules and immune checkpoint inhibitors approved for HCC treatment and possible future approaches. Sorafenib was the first drug approved for the treatment of advanced HCC (aHCC) and it has been shown to increase survival by a few months. Lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor, has shown non-inferiority in survival compared with sorafenib and an improvement in progression-free survival (PFS). The combination of atezolizumab (an anti-PDL1 antibody) and bevacizumab (an anti-VEGF antibody) was the first drug combination approved for HCC, demon-strating improved survival compared with sorafenib (19.2 vs 13.4 months). As a second line of therapy, three regimens (regorafenib, cabozantinib, and ramucirumab) have been approved for the treatment of aHCC after progression on sorafenib according to guidelines. Furthermore, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and nivolumab plus ipilimumab have been approved by the FDA (2017, 2018, and 2020, respectively). Finally, immune target therapy, cancer vaccines, and epigenetic drugs represent three new possible weapons for the treatment of HCC.

HCC and molecular targeting therapies: Back to the future

Rinaldi L.;Vetrano E.;Rinaldi B.;Caturano A.;Salvatore T.;Sasso F. C.
2021

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death from cancer in the world. Recently, the effectiveness of new antiviral therapies and the HBV vaccine have reduced HCC’s incidence, while non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis is an emerging risk factor. This review focuses on antiangiogenic molecules and immune checkpoint inhibitors approved for HCC treatment and possible future approaches. Sorafenib was the first drug approved for the treatment of advanced HCC (aHCC) and it has been shown to increase survival by a few months. Lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor, has shown non-inferiority in survival compared with sorafenib and an improvement in progression-free survival (PFS). The combination of atezolizumab (an anti-PDL1 antibody) and bevacizumab (an anti-VEGF antibody) was the first drug combination approved for HCC, demon-strating improved survival compared with sorafenib (19.2 vs 13.4 months). As a second line of therapy, three regimens (regorafenib, cabozantinib, and ramucirumab) have been approved for the treatment of aHCC after progression on sorafenib according to guidelines. Furthermore, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and nivolumab plus ipilimumab have been approved by the FDA (2017, 2018, and 2020, respectively). Finally, immune target therapy, cancer vaccines, and epigenetic drugs represent three new possible weapons for the treatment of HCC.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11591/456234
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