Gelatin hydrogels by microbial-transglutaminase crosslinking are being increasingly exploited for tissue engineering, and proved high potential in bone regeneration. This study aimed to evaluate, for the first time, the combination of enzymatically crosslinked gelatin with hyaluronan and the newly developed biotechnological chondroitin in enhancing osteogenic potential. Gelatin enzymatic crosslinking was carried out in the presence of hyaluronan or of a hyaluronan-chondroitin mixture, obtaining semi-interpenetrating gels. The latter proved lower swelling extent and improved stiffness compared to the gelatin matrix alone, whilst maintaining high stability. The heteropolysaccharides were retained for 30 days in the hydrogels, thus influencing cell response over this period. To evaluate the effect of hydrogel composition on bone regeneration, materials were seeded with human dental pulp stem cells and osteogenic differentiation was assessed. The expression of osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN), both at gene and protein level, was evaluated at 7, 15 and 30 days of culture. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and two-photon microscope observations were performed to assess bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and to observe the cell penetration depth. In the presence of the heteropolysaccharides, OC and OPN expression was upregulated and a higher degree of calcified matrix formation was observed. Combination with hyaluronan and chondroitin improved both the biophysical properties and the biological response of enzymatically crosslinked gelatin, fastening bone deposition.
|Titolo:||Gelatin-biofermentative unsulfated glycosaminoglycans semi-interpenetrating hydrogels via microbial-transglutaminase crosslinking enhance osteogenic potential of dental pulp stem cells|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|