Abstract: Cardiovascular mortality is a major cause of death among in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a well-known important risk factor for the development of diabetes cardiovascular complications. Therefore, the prevention of diabetic macroangiopathies by preserving endothelial function represents a major therapeutic concern for all National Health Systems. Several complex mechanisms support ED in diabetic patients, frequently cross-talking each other: uncoupling of eNOS with impaired endothelium-dependent vascular response, increased ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of polyol pathway, generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), activation of protein kinase C (PKC), endothelial inflammation, endothelial apoptosis and senescence, and dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs). Metformin is a milestone in T2DM treatment. To date, according to most recent EASD/ADA guidelines, it still represents the first-choice drug in these patients. Intriguingly, several extraglycemic effects of metformin have been recently observed, among which large preclinical and clinical evidence support metformin’s efficacy against ED in T2DM. Metformin seems effective thanks to its favorable action on all the aforementioned pathophysiological ED mechanisms. AMPK pharmacological activation plays a key role, with metformin inhibiting inflammation and improving ED. Therefore, aim of this review is to assess metformin’s beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction in T2DM, which could preempt development of atherosclerosis.

Can Metformin Exert as an Active Drug on Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetic Subjects?

Salvatore, Teresa;Rinaldi, Luca;Caturano, Alfredo;Sasso, Ferdinando Carlo
2020

Abstract

Abstract: Cardiovascular mortality is a major cause of death among in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a well-known important risk factor for the development of diabetes cardiovascular complications. Therefore, the prevention of diabetic macroangiopathies by preserving endothelial function represents a major therapeutic concern for all National Health Systems. Several complex mechanisms support ED in diabetic patients, frequently cross-talking each other: uncoupling of eNOS with impaired endothelium-dependent vascular response, increased ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of polyol pathway, generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), activation of protein kinase C (PKC), endothelial inflammation, endothelial apoptosis and senescence, and dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs). Metformin is a milestone in T2DM treatment. To date, according to most recent EASD/ADA guidelines, it still represents the first-choice drug in these patients. Intriguingly, several extraglycemic effects of metformin have been recently observed, among which large preclinical and clinical evidence support metformin’s efficacy against ED in T2DM. Metformin seems effective thanks to its favorable action on all the aforementioned pathophysiological ED mechanisms. AMPK pharmacological activation plays a key role, with metformin inhibiting inflammation and improving ED. Therefore, aim of this review is to assess metformin’s beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction in T2DM, which could preempt development of atherosclerosis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11591/440468
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