Background: Area deprivation index (ADI) associates with prognosis in non-dialysis CKD. However, no study has evaluated this association in CKD patients under unrestricted nephrology care. Methods: We performed a long-term prospective study to assess the role of deprivation in CKD progression and mortality in stage 1-4 CKD patients under regular nephrology care, living in Naples (Italy). We used ADI calculated at census block levels, standardized to mean values of whole population in Naples, and linked to patients by georeference method. After 12 months of "goal-oriented"nephrology treatment, we compared the risk of death or composite renal outcomes (end-stage kidney disease or doubling of serum creatinine) in the tertiles of standardized ADI. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline was evaluated by mixed effects model for repeated eGFR measurements. Results: We enrolled 715 consecutive patients (age: 64 ± 15 years; 59.1% males; eGFR: 49 ± 22 mL/min/1.73 m2). Most (75.2%) were at the lowest national ADI quintile. At referral, demographic, clinical, and therapeutic features were similar across ADI tertiles; after 12 months, treatment intensification allowed better control of hypertension, proteinuria, hypercholesterolaemia, and anaemia with no difference across ADI tertiles. During the subsequent long-term follow-up (10.5 years [interquartile range 8.2-12.6]), 166 renal events and 249 deaths were registered. ADI independently associated with all-cause death (p for trend = 0.020) and non-cardiovascular (CV) mortality (p for trend = 0.045), while CV mortality did not differ (p for trend = 0.252). Risk of composite renal outcomes was similar across ADI tertiles (p for trend = 0.467). The same held true for eGFR decline (p for trend = 0.675). Conclusions: In CKD patients under regular nephrology care, ADI is not associated with CKD progression, while it is associated with all-cause death due to an excess of non-CV mortality.

Area Deprivation and Risk of Death and CKD Progression: Long-Term Cohort Study in Patients under Unrestricted Nephrology Care

Borrelli S.;Chiodini P.;Simeon V.;De Nicola L.;Minutolo R.;Conte G.;Garofalo C.
2020

Abstract

Background: Area deprivation index (ADI) associates with prognosis in non-dialysis CKD. However, no study has evaluated this association in CKD patients under unrestricted nephrology care. Methods: We performed a long-term prospective study to assess the role of deprivation in CKD progression and mortality in stage 1-4 CKD patients under regular nephrology care, living in Naples (Italy). We used ADI calculated at census block levels, standardized to mean values of whole population in Naples, and linked to patients by georeference method. After 12 months of "goal-oriented"nephrology treatment, we compared the risk of death or composite renal outcomes (end-stage kidney disease or doubling of serum creatinine) in the tertiles of standardized ADI. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline was evaluated by mixed effects model for repeated eGFR measurements. Results: We enrolled 715 consecutive patients (age: 64 ± 15 years; 59.1% males; eGFR: 49 ± 22 mL/min/1.73 m2). Most (75.2%) were at the lowest national ADI quintile. At referral, demographic, clinical, and therapeutic features were similar across ADI tertiles; after 12 months, treatment intensification allowed better control of hypertension, proteinuria, hypercholesterolaemia, and anaemia with no difference across ADI tertiles. During the subsequent long-term follow-up (10.5 years [interquartile range 8.2-12.6]), 166 renal events and 249 deaths were registered. ADI independently associated with all-cause death (p for trend = 0.020) and non-cardiovascular (CV) mortality (p for trend = 0.045), while CV mortality did not differ (p for trend = 0.252). Risk of composite renal outcomes was similar across ADI tertiles (p for trend = 0.467). The same held true for eGFR decline (p for trend = 0.675). Conclusions: In CKD patients under regular nephrology care, ADI is not associated with CKD progression, while it is associated with all-cause death due to an excess of non-CV mortality.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11591/434567
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