Cardiac remuscularization has been the stated goal of the field of regenerative cardiology since its inception. Along with the refreshment of lost and dysfunctional cardiac muscle cells, the field of cell therapy has expanded in scope encompassing also the potential of the injected cells as cardioprotective and cardio-reparative agents for cardiovascular diseases. The latter has been the result of the findings that cell therapies so far tested in clinical trials exert their beneficial effects through paracrine mechanisms acting on the endogenous myocardial reparative/regenerative potential. The endogenous regenerative potential of the adult heart is still highly debated. While it has been widely accepted that adult cardiomyocytes (CMs) are renewed throughout life either in response to wear and tear and after injury, the rate and origin of this phenomenon are yet to be clarified. The adult heart harbors resident cardiac/stem progenitor cells (CSCs/CPCs), whose discovery and characterization were initially sufficient to explain CM renewal in response to physiological and pathological stresses, when also considering that adult CMs are terminally differentiated cells. The role of CSCs in CM formation in the adult heart has been however questioned by some recent genetic fate map studies, which have been proved to have serious limitations. Nevertheless, uncontested evidence shows that clonal CSCs are effective transplantable regenerative agents either for their direct myogenic differentiation and for their paracrine effects in the allogeneic setting. In particular, the paracrine potential of CSCs has been the focus of the recent investigation, whereby CSC-derived exosomes appear to harbor relevant regenerative and reparative signals underlying the beneficial effects of CSC transplantation. This review focuses on recent advances in our knowledge about the biological role of exosomes in heart tissue homeostasis and repair with the idea to use them as tools for new therapeutic biotechnologies for "cell-less" effective cardiac regeneration approaches.

Unravelling the Biology of Adult Cardiac Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes to Foster Endogenous Cardiac Regeneration and Repair

Torella, Michele;De Angelis, Antonella;
2020

Abstract

Cardiac remuscularization has been the stated goal of the field of regenerative cardiology since its inception. Along with the refreshment of lost and dysfunctional cardiac muscle cells, the field of cell therapy has expanded in scope encompassing also the potential of the injected cells as cardioprotective and cardio-reparative agents for cardiovascular diseases. The latter has been the result of the findings that cell therapies so far tested in clinical trials exert their beneficial effects through paracrine mechanisms acting on the endogenous myocardial reparative/regenerative potential. The endogenous regenerative potential of the adult heart is still highly debated. While it has been widely accepted that adult cardiomyocytes (CMs) are renewed throughout life either in response to wear and tear and after injury, the rate and origin of this phenomenon are yet to be clarified. The adult heart harbors resident cardiac/stem progenitor cells (CSCs/CPCs), whose discovery and characterization were initially sufficient to explain CM renewal in response to physiological and pathological stresses, when also considering that adult CMs are terminally differentiated cells. The role of CSCs in CM formation in the adult heart has been however questioned by some recent genetic fate map studies, which have been proved to have serious limitations. Nevertheless, uncontested evidence shows that clonal CSCs are effective transplantable regenerative agents either for their direct myogenic differentiation and for their paracrine effects in the allogeneic setting. In particular, the paracrine potential of CSCs has been the focus of the recent investigation, whereby CSC-derived exosomes appear to harbor relevant regenerative and reparative signals underlying the beneficial effects of CSC transplantation. This review focuses on recent advances in our knowledge about the biological role of exosomes in heart tissue homeostasis and repair with the idea to use them as tools for new therapeutic biotechnologies for "cell-less" effective cardiac regeneration approaches.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11591/430073
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