BACKGROUND: It has been shown that many plant- or microbial-derived oligos and polysaccharides may prompt tissue repair. Among the different extracts that have been studied, the aqueous one of Triticum vulgare (TVE) that was obtained from a whole germinated plant has been proven to have different biological properties that are useful in the process of wound healing. Nevertheless, with the long tradition of its use in pharmaceutical cream and ointments, especially in Italy, a new protocol was recently proposed (and patented) to improve the extraction process. METHODS: In a simplified in vitro model, human keratinocyte monolayers were scratched and used to run time lapse experiments by using time lapse video microscopy (TLVM) to quantify reparation rate while considering a dose-response effect. Contemporarily, the molecular mechanisms that are involved in tissue repair were studied. In fact, key biomarkers that are involved in remodeling, such as MMP-2 and MMP-9, and in matrix structure assembly, such as collagen I, elastin, integrin αV and aquaporin 3, were evaluated with gene expression analyses (RT-PCR) and protein quantification in western blotting. RESULTS: All TVE doses tested on the HaCat-supported cell proliferation. TVE also prompted cell migration in respect to the control, correctly modulating the timing of metalloproteases expression toward a consistent and well-assessed matrix remodeling. Furthermore, TVE treatments upregulated and positively modulated the expression of the analyzed biomarkers, thus resulting in a better remodeling of dermal tissue during healing. CONCLUSIONS: The in vitro results on the beneficial effects of TVE on tissue elasticity and regeneration may support a better understanding of the action mechanism of TVE as active principles in pharmaceutical preparation in wound treatment.
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