Prostate cancer (PC) remains a widespread malignancy in men. Since the androgen/androgen receptor (AR) axis is associated with the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, suppression of AR-dependent signaling by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) still represents the primary intervention for this disease. Despite the initial response, prostate cancer frequently develops resistance to ADT and progresses. As such, the disease becomes metastatic and few therapeutic options are available at this stage. Although the majority of studies are focused on the role of AR signaling, compelling evidence has shown that estrogens and their receptors control prostate cancer initiation and progression through a still debated mechanism. Epithelial versus mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in metastatic spread as well as drug-resistance of human cancers, and many studies on the role of this process in prostate cancer progression have been reported. We discuss here the findings on the role of estrogen/estrogen receptor (ER) axis in epithelial versus mesenchymal transition of prostate cancer cells. The pending questions concerning this issue are presented, together with the impact of the available data in clinical management of prostate cancer patients.

Estrogen Receptors in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Prostate Cancer.

Pia Giovannelli
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Marzia Di Donato
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Antonio Bilancio
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Antonio A. Sinisi
Visualization
;
Antimo Migliaccio
Supervision
;
and Gabriella Castoria.
Supervision
2019

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PC) remains a widespread malignancy in men. Since the androgen/androgen receptor (AR) axis is associated with the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, suppression of AR-dependent signaling by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) still represents the primary intervention for this disease. Despite the initial response, prostate cancer frequently develops resistance to ADT and progresses. As such, the disease becomes metastatic and few therapeutic options are available at this stage. Although the majority of studies are focused on the role of AR signaling, compelling evidence has shown that estrogens and their receptors control prostate cancer initiation and progression through a still debated mechanism. Epithelial versus mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in metastatic spread as well as drug-resistance of human cancers, and many studies on the role of this process in prostate cancer progression have been reported. We discuss here the findings on the role of estrogen/estrogen receptor (ER) axis in epithelial versus mesenchymal transition of prostate cancer cells. The pending questions concerning this issue are presented, together with the impact of the available data in clinical management of prostate cancer patients.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11591/415120
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 19
  • Scopus 27
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 29
social impact