Cardiovascular diseases frequently coexist with chronic kidney disease that constitutes a major determinant of outcome in patients with heart failure. Dysfunction of both organs is related to chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Widespread expression of serine protease DPP4 that degrades varieties of substrates suggests its involvement in numerous physiological processes. In this study, we tested the effects of selective DPP4 inhibition on the progression of renal disease in a nondiabetic model of hypertensive heart disease using Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Chronic DPP4 inhibition positively affected renal function with a significant reduction in albuminuria and serum creatinine. DPP4 inhibition attenuated the inflammatory component by reducing the expression of NF-κB, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1. Kidney macrophages expressed GLP-1R, and DPP4 inhibition promoted macrophage polarization toward the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Finally, high degrees of NADPH oxidase 4 expression and oxidation of nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins were reduced upon DPP4 inhibition. Our study provides evidence of renoprotection by DPP4 inhibition in a nondiabetic hypertension-induced model of chronic cardiorenal syndrome, indicating that DPP4 pathway remains a valid object to study in the context of chronic multiorgan diseases.
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