The technique of frequency-stabilized comb-calibrated cavity ring-down spectroscopy was used to observe the weak R(1) transition of the deuturated molecular hydrogen (HD) first overtone band in the near infrared. Like molecular hydrogen, HD is a benchmark system to test quantum electrodynamics, looking for new physics beyond the standard model. The spectral line shape was measured with an extremely high fidelity at relatively low gas pressures. The use of a very refined line-shape model allowed us to retrieve the unperturbed line-center frequency of the R(1) line with a global uncertainty of about 100 kHz (δν/ν=5×10-10). Our value may solve the ambiguity that recently emerged for this line from a pair of sub-Doppler experiments. We also determined other parameters of interest, such as the line strength, the transition dipole moment, and the pressure-broadening coefficient.
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