Spontaneous peritonitis (SP) is the most common infection among decompensated end-stage liver disease patients. SP is the infection of ascitic fluid (neutrophil ascitic count â¥250/mL) without an alternative focus of abdominal infection. According to the causative agent, clinicians can make the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or spontaneous fungal peritonitis. The mortality rate is very high, ranging from one-fifth of the patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis to four-fifths of the patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis. An immediate and accurate diagnosis can improve the outcome in end-stage liver disease patients. The aim of this work is to provide physicians with a practical diagnostic guidance for SP diagnosis according to current evidence, in order to improve the management of cirrhotic patients with infected ascitic fluid.
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