Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are a major cause of upper respiratory tract infections in man, and can exacerbate existing pulmonary disease. The major group of HRV attach to ICAM-1, which is expressed on nasal and bronchial epithelial cells. To study the influence of biological mediators on ICAM-1 expression, and consequently HRV attachment and infection, we compared the effects of various cytokines, alone and in combination, on ICAM-1 expression by an uninfected and HRV-infected bronchial epithelial cell line H292. Cytokines known to be released soon after viral infection, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1beta and the chemokine IL-8 increase ICAM-1 expression on uninfected cells. Epithelial cells infected with live HRV-14 displayed marked up-regulation of ICAM-1 compared with baseline. TNF-alpha further enhanced the HRV-induced increase in ICAM-1 expression on epithelial cells, peaking at day 4 after infection, whilst IL-8 exhibited a steady increase in ICAM-1 expression over 14 days. In contrast, IFN-gamma, a known Th1 antiviral lymphokine, whilst increasing the level of ICAM-1 on uninfected cells, induced a significant persistent down-regulation of ICAM-1 expression on HRV-infected epithelial cells. With combinations of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, ICAM-1 expression on HRV-infected cells was reduced to basal levels. The effects of IFN-gamma were paralleled by a reduction in viral titres. Our in vitro model has provided useful insights into the early pathogenic events of HRV infection at the level of the host cell-virus interaction. Our data confirm that biological mediators play a crucial role in the pathogenesis as well as the course of HRV infection which is modulated by the types, and time kinetics of inflammatory cytokines in the immediate microenvironment.

Interferon-gamma downregulates the rhinovirus induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on human airway epithelial cells

BIANCO, Andrea;
1997

Abstract

Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are a major cause of upper respiratory tract infections in man, and can exacerbate existing pulmonary disease. The major group of HRV attach to ICAM-1, which is expressed on nasal and bronchial epithelial cells. To study the influence of biological mediators on ICAM-1 expression, and consequently HRV attachment and infection, we compared the effects of various cytokines, alone and in combination, on ICAM-1 expression by an uninfected and HRV-infected bronchial epithelial cell line H292. Cytokines known to be released soon after viral infection, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1beta and the chemokine IL-8 increase ICAM-1 expression on uninfected cells. Epithelial cells infected with live HRV-14 displayed marked up-regulation of ICAM-1 compared with baseline. TNF-alpha further enhanced the HRV-induced increase in ICAM-1 expression on epithelial cells, peaking at day 4 after infection, whilst IL-8 exhibited a steady increase in ICAM-1 expression over 14 days. In contrast, IFN-gamma, a known Th1 antiviral lymphokine, whilst increasing the level of ICAM-1 on uninfected cells, induced a significant persistent down-regulation of ICAM-1 expression on HRV-infected epithelial cells. With combinations of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, ICAM-1 expression on HRV-infected cells was reduced to basal levels. The effects of IFN-gamma were paralleled by a reduction in viral titres. Our in vitro model has provided useful insights into the early pathogenic events of HRV infection at the level of the host cell-virus interaction. Our data confirm that biological mediators play a crucial role in the pathogenesis as well as the course of HRV infection which is modulated by the types, and time kinetics of inflammatory cytokines in the immediate microenvironment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11591/329176
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