Over the last few years, the demonstration of bene®cial effects of leukotriene receptor antagonists in various forms of asthma has renewed clinical and pharmacologic interest in this class of lipid mediators. Several studies demonstrated an increased biosynthesis of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT) in asthmatic patients. However, the reasons for the dysregulated production of CysLTs in asthmatic patients are not completely de®ned. An improved method of lipid mediator detection and the availability of cells isolated from human airways (by bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] and bronchial biopsies) have allowed initial studies to address this issue. Eosinophils retrieved from in¯amed airways of asthmatics have a larger arachidonic acid (AA) content than their blood counterpart. The high level of AA in these cells is primarily due to a remodeling of endogenous arachidonate pools with the accumulation of this fatty acid in a triglyceride-associated pool. In addition, elevated levels of a secretory form of phospholipase A2, the key enzyme initiating the cascade of CysLTs, are found in the BAL of asthmatics. Finally, eosinophils isolated from the BAL of asthmatics have an increased expression of LTC4 synthase. The level of expression of this enzyme correlates with the increased amount of CysLTs produced in the airways of these patients. Taken together, these data identify at least two possible mechanisms to explain the excessive CysLT production in asthmatics: 1) an increased content of AA in the glycerolipid pools of in¯ammatory cells 2) an enhanced activity of key biosynthetic enzymes involved in CysLT synthesis.

Arachidonic acid metabolism in inflammatory cells of patients with bronchial asthma

Calabrese C;Mazzarella G
2000

Abstract

Over the last few years, the demonstration of bene®cial effects of leukotriene receptor antagonists in various forms of asthma has renewed clinical and pharmacologic interest in this class of lipid mediators. Several studies demonstrated an increased biosynthesis of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT) in asthmatic patients. However, the reasons for the dysregulated production of CysLTs in asthmatic patients are not completely de®ned. An improved method of lipid mediator detection and the availability of cells isolated from human airways (by bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] and bronchial biopsies) have allowed initial studies to address this issue. Eosinophils retrieved from in¯amed airways of asthmatics have a larger arachidonic acid (AA) content than their blood counterpart. The high level of AA in these cells is primarily due to a remodeling of endogenous arachidonate pools with the accumulation of this fatty acid in a triglyceride-associated pool. In addition, elevated levels of a secretory form of phospholipase A2, the key enzyme initiating the cascade of CysLTs, are found in the BAL of asthmatics. Finally, eosinophils isolated from the BAL of asthmatics have an increased expression of LTC4 synthase. The level of expression of this enzyme correlates with the increased amount of CysLTs produced in the airways of these patients. Taken together, these data identify at least two possible mechanisms to explain the excessive CysLT production in asthmatics: 1) an increased content of AA in the glycerolipid pools of in¯ammatory cells 2) an enhanced activity of key biosynthetic enzymes involved in CysLT synthesis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11591/227293
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