Free D-aspartate (D-Asp) occurs in substantial amounts in glandular tissues. This paper reviews the existing work on D-Asp in vertebrate exocrine and endocrine glands, with emphasis on functional roles. Endogenous D-Asp was detected in salivary glands. High D-Asp levels in the parotid gland during development suggest an involvement of the amino acid in the regulation of early developmental phases and/or differentiation processes. D-Asp has a prominent role in the Harderian gland, where it elicits exocrine secretion through activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Interestingly, the increase in NOS activity associated with D-Asp administration in the Harderian gland suggests a potential capability of D-Asp to induce vasodilatation. In mammals, an increase in local concentrations of D-Asp facilitates the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones, i.e., PRL, LH and GH, whereas it inhibits the secretion of POMC/α-MSH from the intermediate pituitary and of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary. D-Asp also acts as a negative regulator for melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland. Further, D-Asp can stereo-specifically modulate the production of sex steroids, thus taking part in the endocrine control of reproductive activity. Although D-Asp receptors remain to be characterized, gene expression of NR1 and NR2 subunits of NMDAr responds to D-Asp in the testis. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.
|Titolo:||Current knowledge of D-aspartate in glandular tissues|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|