The growing use of cytostatic drugs is gaining relevance as an environmental concern. Environmental and distribution studies are increasing due to the development of accurate analytical methods, whereas ecotoxicological studies are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute and chronic toxicity of six cytostatics belonging to five classes of Anatomical Therapeutic Classification (ATC) (5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, and imatinib) on primary consumers of the aquatic chain (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Brachionus calyciflorus, and Thamnocephalus platyurus). Acute ecotoxicological effects occurred at concentrations in the order of mg L-136 , higher than those predicted in the environment, and the most acutely toxic drugs among those tested were cisplatin and doxorubicin for most aquatic organisms. For chronic toxicity, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil were the most toxic drugs in all test organisms, inducing reproduction inhibition in 50% of crustaceans at a concentration on the order of μg L-140 . Rotifers were less susceptible to this class of pharmaceuticals. On the basis of chronic results, the low concentrations for an effect suggest a potential environmental risk of cytostatics. Thus, this study represents an important starting point for establishing the real environmental impact of these substances.

Acute and chronic toxicity of six anticancer drugs on rotifers and crustaceans

LAVORGNA, Margherita;Russo C;ISIDORI, Marina
2014

Abstract

The growing use of cytostatic drugs is gaining relevance as an environmental concern. Environmental and distribution studies are increasing due to the development of accurate analytical methods, whereas ecotoxicological studies are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute and chronic toxicity of six cytostatics belonging to five classes of Anatomical Therapeutic Classification (ATC) (5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, and imatinib) on primary consumers of the aquatic chain (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Brachionus calyciflorus, and Thamnocephalus platyurus). Acute ecotoxicological effects occurred at concentrations in the order of mg L-136 , higher than those predicted in the environment, and the most acutely toxic drugs among those tested were cisplatin and doxorubicin for most aquatic organisms. For chronic toxicity, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil were the most toxic drugs in all test organisms, inducing reproduction inhibition in 50% of crustaceans at a concentration on the order of μg L-140 . Rotifers were less susceptible to this class of pharmaceuticals. On the basis of chronic results, the low concentrations for an effect suggest a potential environmental risk of cytostatics. Thus, this study represents an important starting point for establishing the real environmental impact of these substances.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11591/184933
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