Mapping of FMRFamidergic neural circuitry in the amphibian brain has been done by immunohistochemical methods. Comparative evidence suggests that there are similarities and differences in the overall pattern of distribution of FMRFamide-ir elements in the brain among the three amphibian orders and within each order. FMRFamide is expressed in neurons in some circumscribed areas of the brain. A part of these neurons is concentrated in classical neurosecretory areas of the hypothalamus in a bilaterally symmetrical fashion. Similar neurons occur occasionally in the midbrain, but are virtually absent from the hindbrain. Anurans are unique among amphibians to show FMRFamide neurons in the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca. A viviparous gymnophione is known to possess a small population of such neurons in the dorsal thalamus. Together, the FMRFamide neurons contribute to an extensive fiber network throughout the amphibian brain. Descriptive developmental studies suggest that the rostral forebrain-located FMRFamide neurons originate in the olfactory placode and then migrate into the brain along the route of the vomeronasal-olfactory-terminal nerve complex. Olfactory placodal ablation in an anuran and a urodele provide experimental support to this contention. Other FMRFamide neuronal cell groups, in the hypothalamus and dorsal thalamus, are supposed to arise fi-om non-placodal precursors. The neuroanatomical distribution (projection of immunoreactive processes to areas of the fore-, mid-, and hindbrain as well as to cerebrospinal fluid, co-localization with other neuropeptides, and presence in the median eminence) has furnished morphological correlates of possible functions of FMRFamide in the amphibian CNS. While amphibian FMRFamide-like or structurally related peptides remain to be isolated and characterized, the sum of the distribution pattern of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity suggests that it may act as a neurotransmitter or a neuromodulator, and also may have endocrine regulatory functions.
|Titolo:||FMRFamide in the amphibian brain: a comprehensive survey|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2001|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|