Background. The photolysis of pesticides is of high current interest since light is one of the most important abiotic factors which are responsible for the environmental fate of these substances and may induce their conversion into noxious products. The action of light can also be mediated by oxygen and synthetic or naturally occurring substances which act as sensitizers. Our objective in this study was to investigate the photochemical behaviour of the systemic fungicide furalaxyl in the presence of oxygen and various sensitizers, and to compare the toxicity of the main photoproduct(s) to that of the parent compound. Previous reports on the direct photolysis of the pesticide demonstrated a very slow degradation and the only identified photoproducts were N-2,6-xylyl-D,L-alaninate and 2,6-dimethylaniline. Methods. Solutions of furalaxyl in CH3CN were photooxygenated using a 500W high-pressure mercury lamp (through a Pyrex glass filter, λ>300 nm) or a 650W halogen lamp or sunlight and the proper sensitizer. When sunlight was used, aqueous solutions were employed. The photodegradation was checked by NMR and/or GC-MS. The photoproducts were spectroscopically evidenced and, when possible, isolated chromatographically. Acute toxicity tests were performed on the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, the crustacean cladoceran Daphnia magna and the anostracan Thamnocephalus platyurus, while chronic toxicity tests (sublethal endpoints) comprised a producer, the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia, as a consumer. Results and Discussion. In the presence of both oxygen and sensitizer, furalaxyl underwent rapid photochemical transformations mainly to N-disubstituted formamide, maleic anhydride and a 2(5H)-furanone derivative. The formation of these products was rationalized in terms of a furan endoperoxide intermediate derived from the reaction of furalaxyl with active dioxygenated species (singlet oxygen, superoxide anion or ground state oxygen). The 2(5H)-furanone exhibited a higher toxicity than the parent compound. Conclusion. This work reports the first data on the photosensitized oxygenation of furalaxyl with evidence of the high tendency of the pesticide to undergo photodegradation under these conditions leading, among other things, to a 2(5H)-furanone, which is more toxic than the starting furalaxyl towards aquatic organisms. Recommendations and Outlook. Investigation highlights that the photolytic fate of a pesticide, although quite stable to direct photoreaction due to its low absorption of solar radiation at ground level, can be significantly influenced in the environment by the presence of substances with energy or electron-transfer properties as natural dyes, e.g. chlorophyll, or synthetic pollutants, e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).

Sensitized photooxygenation of the fungicide furalaxyl

ISIDORI, Marina
2004

Abstract

Background. The photolysis of pesticides is of high current interest since light is one of the most important abiotic factors which are responsible for the environmental fate of these substances and may induce their conversion into noxious products. The action of light can also be mediated by oxygen and synthetic or naturally occurring substances which act as sensitizers. Our objective in this study was to investigate the photochemical behaviour of the systemic fungicide furalaxyl in the presence of oxygen and various sensitizers, and to compare the toxicity of the main photoproduct(s) to that of the parent compound. Previous reports on the direct photolysis of the pesticide demonstrated a very slow degradation and the only identified photoproducts were N-2,6-xylyl-D,L-alaninate and 2,6-dimethylaniline. Methods. Solutions of furalaxyl in CH3CN were photooxygenated using a 500W high-pressure mercury lamp (through a Pyrex glass filter, λ>300 nm) or a 650W halogen lamp or sunlight and the proper sensitizer. When sunlight was used, aqueous solutions were employed. The photodegradation was checked by NMR and/or GC-MS. The photoproducts were spectroscopically evidenced and, when possible, isolated chromatographically. Acute toxicity tests were performed on the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, the crustacean cladoceran Daphnia magna and the anostracan Thamnocephalus platyurus, while chronic toxicity tests (sublethal endpoints) comprised a producer, the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia, as a consumer. Results and Discussion. In the presence of both oxygen and sensitizer, furalaxyl underwent rapid photochemical transformations mainly to N-disubstituted formamide, maleic anhydride and a 2(5H)-furanone derivative. The formation of these products was rationalized in terms of a furan endoperoxide intermediate derived from the reaction of furalaxyl with active dioxygenated species (singlet oxygen, superoxide anion or ground state oxygen). The 2(5H)-furanone exhibited a higher toxicity than the parent compound. Conclusion. This work reports the first data on the photosensitized oxygenation of furalaxyl with evidence of the high tendency of the pesticide to undergo photodegradation under these conditions leading, among other things, to a 2(5H)-furanone, which is more toxic than the starting furalaxyl towards aquatic organisms. Recommendations and Outlook. Investigation highlights that the photolytic fate of a pesticide, although quite stable to direct photoreaction due to its low absorption of solar radiation at ground level, can be significantly influenced in the environment by the presence of substances with energy or electron-transfer properties as natural dyes, e.g. chlorophyll, or synthetic pollutants, e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11591/166716
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