Cancer is a devastating disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Scientific research validly counteracts the onset of cancer and its resistances with a multiplicity of treatments. Healthy lifestyles and avoidance of exposure to potential carcinogens are highly recommended cancer preventive measures. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant-derived polyphenols, peculiarly rich in plant dietary products, are thoroughly investigated as capable of hindering carcinogenesis in its various stages. Furthermore, a growing toxicological research, mostly based on cell and animal models, is identifying polyphenols or their formulations, properly obtained from plant sources, as promising anticancer agents with chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effectiveness. Thus, polyphenols could also be employed as protectant agents, useful in overcoming the failures of the most common anticancer treatments. This chapter provides an update of the current scientific knowledge of plant polyphenols and all their anticancer-linked properties that make them a resource in toxicology worth exploring.
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