Micro-generation is a novel method for producing heat and power on site and near the end-user with high reliability, efficiency, and security of energy supply. The variety of micro-generation technology choices and applications is strongly dependent on a building’s electric and thermal load profiles. Building integration of micro-generation systems is challenging because the loads are small and stochastic in nature, and the diversity is high. Given the rapidly increasing numbers of micro-cogeneration installations around the world, there is a pressing need for knowledge to enable informed choices to be made on where and when the installation of micro-cogeneration systems is appropriate. To properly integrate these systems in buildings, a significant number of operational and design issues must be investigated and resolved. This report contains the research findings of Annex 54 of the International Energy Agency’s Energy in Building and Communities Programme (IEA EBC), which was established in 2009 to further develop simulation models and performance assessment techniques affecting the integration and future penetration of micro-generation systems in buildings. The Annex 54 research encompasses the broad range of end-uses of micro-generation and the systems within it that might be deployed. The work reflects the state-of-the-art and future performance in micro-generation, including integration with energy storage and demand-side management technologies (e.g. responsive loads or dynamic demand control), virtual utility, and smart energy networks. Finally, given the ubiquitous nature of this technology and its broad societal impact, the research results are accessible to a broad audience including engineers, policy makers, and businesses. Annex 54 successfully developed models of micro-generation units and system components, and implemented them into performance simulation platforms for state of the art buildings. A huge amount of country-specific data has been collected from laboratory and field testing, and has been used to determine demand-side profiles and to gain knowledge on micro-generation system integration and performance under variety of real life operating conditions. The country-specific synthesis analysis performed by Annex 54 revealed generic performance trends and “rules of thumb” for the appropriate deployment of micro-generation technologies. The developed assessment methodology established common reference points for performance comparison, assessment methodology, and metrics, as well as for the identification of generic not country-specific factors affecting the viability of micro-generation systems and their appropriate deployment in buildings and communities. A selection of the range of support mechanisms to incentivize the adoption of micro-generation technology has been analysed. It is recognized that the supporting schemes can change quickly and, as such, the country-specific incentives and grants have been examined over the life time of the Annex. As such, the report provides a snapshot of feed-in tariffs, grants, building regulations, and the role of micro-generation and associated technologies in smarter energy systems.
|Titolo:||Integration of microgeneration and related technologies in building|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||3.1 Monografia o trattato scientifico|