Cancer patients need multimodal therapies to treat their disease increasingly. In particular, drug treatment, as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or various associations between them are commonly used to increase efficacy. However, the use of drugs predisposes a percentage of patients to develop toxicity in multiple organs and systems. Principle chemotherapy drugs mechanism of action is cell replication inhibition, rapidly proliferating cells especially. Immunotherapy is another tumor therapy strategy based on antitumor immunity activation trough agents as CTLA4 inhibitors (ipilimumab) or PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as nivolumab. If, on the one hand, all these agents inhibit tumor growth, on the other, they can cause various degrees toxicity in several organs, due to their specific mechanism of action. Particularly interesting are bowel toxicity, which can be clinically heterogeneous (pain, nausea, diarrhea, enterocolitis, pneumocolitis), up to severe consequences, such as ischemia, a rare occurrence. However, this event can occur both in vessels that supply intestine and in submucosa microvessels. We report drug-related intestinal vascular damage main characteristics, showing the radiological aspect of these alterations. Interpretation of imaging in oncologic patients has become progressively more complicated in the context of “target therapy” and thanks to the increasing number and types of therapies provided. Radiologists should know this variety of antiangiogenic treatments and immunotherapy regimens first because they can determine atypical features of tumor response and then also because of their eventual bowel toxicity.

Chemotherapy-induced bowel ischemia: diagnostic imaging overview

Reginelli A.;Vacca G.;Belfiore M. P.;Viscardi G.;Cappabianca S.
2021

Abstract

Cancer patients need multimodal therapies to treat their disease increasingly. In particular, drug treatment, as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or various associations between them are commonly used to increase efficacy. However, the use of drugs predisposes a percentage of patients to develop toxicity in multiple organs and systems. Principle chemotherapy drugs mechanism of action is cell replication inhibition, rapidly proliferating cells especially. Immunotherapy is another tumor therapy strategy based on antitumor immunity activation trough agents as CTLA4 inhibitors (ipilimumab) or PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as nivolumab. If, on the one hand, all these agents inhibit tumor growth, on the other, they can cause various degrees toxicity in several organs, due to their specific mechanism of action. Particularly interesting are bowel toxicity, which can be clinically heterogeneous (pain, nausea, diarrhea, enterocolitis, pneumocolitis), up to severe consequences, such as ischemia, a rare occurrence. However, this event can occur both in vessels that supply intestine and in submucosa microvessels. We report drug-related intestinal vascular damage main characteristics, showing the radiological aspect of these alterations. Interpretation of imaging in oncologic patients has become progressively more complicated in the context of “target therapy” and thanks to the increasing number and types of therapies provided. Radiologists should know this variety of antiangiogenic treatments and immunotherapy regimens first because they can determine atypical features of tumor response and then also because of their eventual bowel toxicity.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11591/464005
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